程序员 Ubuntu php Windows centos google shell Android mysql Python Firefox HTML5 开源 wordpress nginx java linux apache linux命令 微软

构建高性能Web环境(linux/nginx/mysql/php-fastcgi)

本文主要是撰写Linux系统中PHP web环境的配置,介绍在CentOS系统下安装:Nginxmysqlphp-fastcgi,文中用的软件都是截至2011/6/22最新稳定版。网络上关于这种配置很多,配置过程相差不大,但是参数有所不同。开始之前先介绍一下nginx:

Nginx(engine x)是一款轻量级的Web 服务器/反向代理服务器及电子邮件(IMAP/POP3)代理服务器,并在一个BSD-like 协议下发行。由俄罗斯的程序设计师Igor Sysoev所开发,最初供俄国大型的入口网站及搜寻引擎Rambler(俄文:Рамблер)使用。  其特点是占有内存少,并发能力强,事实上nginx的并发能力确实在同类型的网页伺服器中表现较好.目前中国大陆使用nginx网站用户有:新浪、网易、 腾讯,另外知名的微网志Plurk也使用nginx。

下面开始叙述详细配置过程:

一、Centos系统安装完毕之后,关闭不需要的服务优化系统,安装系统更新和所需软件支持。

关闭不需要的服务

chkconfig --level 3 acpid off
chkconfig --level 3 anacron off
chkconfig --level 3 apmd off
chkconfig --level 3 mdmonitor off
chkconfig --level 3 xinetd off
chkconfig --level 3 sendmail off
chkconfig --level 3 rpcgssd off
chkconfig --level 3 rawdevices off
chkconfig --level 3 messagebus off
chkconfig --level 3 atd off
chkconfig --level 3 gpm off
chkconfig --level 3 autofs off
chkconfig --level 3 cpuspeed off
chkconfig --level 3 haldaemon off
chkconfig --level 3 nfslock off
chkconfig --level 3 portmap off
chkconfig --level 3 xfs off
chkconfig --level 3 netfs off
chkconfig --level 3 smartd off
chkconfig --level 3 ip6tables off
chkconfig --level 3 isdn off
chkconfig --level 3 rpcidmapd off
chkconfig --level 3 microcode_ctl off
service acpid stop
service anacron stop
service apmd stop
service mdmonitor stop
service xinetd stop
service sendmail stop
service rpcgssd stop
service rawdevices stop
service messagebus stop
service atd stop
service gpm stop
service autofs stop
service cpuspeed stop
service haldaemon stop
service nfslock stop
service portmap stop
service xfs stop
service netfs stop
service smartd stop
service ip6tables stop
service isdn stop
service rpcidmapd stop
service microcode_ctl stop 

安装系统更新和所需软件支持

yum -y update
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers ntp rar

下载需要用到的软件包(以下地址都是官方下载、也可以自己查找)

【下载PHP需要的库】
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
wget http://ncu.dl.sourceforge.net/project/mcrypt/Libmcrypt/2.5.8/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
wget http://ncu.dl.sourceforge.net/project/mhash/mhash/0.9.9.9/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
wget http://ncu.dl.sourceforge.net/project/mcrypt/MCrypt/2.6.8/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz

【下载mysql、php、nginx】
wget http://mysql.mirrors.hoobly.com/Downloads/MySQL-5.1/mysql-5.1.57.tar.gz
wget http://us.php.net/distributions/php-5.2.17.tar.gz
wget http://php-fpm.org/downloads/php-5.2.17-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz
wget http://www.nginx.org/download/nginx-1.0.2.tar.gz
wget ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-8.12.tar.gz

【下载php扩展】
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.6.tgz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.6.1/eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
wget ftp://ftp.imagemagick.org/pub/ImageMagick/ImageMagick-6.7.0-8.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-3.0.0.tgz

二、安装PHP需要的库程序

tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.1.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13.1/ && ./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make && make install && cd ..

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/ && ./configure
make && make install
/sbin/ldconfig && cd libltdl/ && ./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make && make install && cd ../..

tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/ && ./configure
make && make install && cd ..

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1
ln -s /usr/local/bin/libmcrypt-config /usr/bin/libmcrypt-config

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/ && /sbin/ldconfig
./configure && make && make install && cd ..

三、编译安装 MySQL

tar zxvf mysql-5.1.57.tar.gz && cd mysql-5.1.57
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --with-big-tables --with-readline --with-ssl --with-embedded-server --enable-local-infile
make && make install && cd ..

创建mysql用户组,创建数据库、日志等存储目录并赋予权限

mkdir -p /data/mysqldata
mkdir -p /data/mysqldata/database
mkdir -p /data/mysqldata/log
mkdir -p /data/mysqldata/pid
groupadd mysql
useradd -g mysql -d /data/mysqldata/database -s /sbin/nologin mysql
chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql/.
chown -R root:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql/*
chown -R mysql:mysql /data/mysqldata/*

修改my.cnf文件参数(参数适用于大于2G内存服务器)

[client]
port            = 3306
socket          = /tmp/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
user            = mysql
port            = 3306
socket          = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir         = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir         = /data/mysqldata/database
log-error       = /data/mysqldata/log/mysql_error.log
pid-file        = /data/mysqldata/pid/mysql.pid
skip-external-locking
skip-name-resolve
back_log = 500
key_buffer_size = 256M
max_allowed_packet = 32M
thread_stack = 192K
table_cache = 256
sort_buffer_size = 4M
read_buffer_size = 4M
join_buffer_size = 4M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 8M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 64M

thread_cache = 128
thread_cache_size = 10
query_cache_size = 32M
tmp_table_size = 128M
max_connections = 5000
wait_timeout = 60
max_connect_errors = 6000
expire_logs_days = 30

server-id       = 1

[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

[mysql]
no-auto-rehash

初始化MySQL服务

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db 
--basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql 
--datadir=/data/mysqldata/database 
--user=mysql

启动MySQL服务

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &            //启动服务
/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown      //停止服务

修改root密码

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u root password ‘yourpassword’

四、编译安装PHP(FastCGI模式)

tar zxvf php-5.2.17.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.17-fpm-0.5.14.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.17 -p1
cd php-5.2.17/

./buildconf --force

./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php 
--with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc 
--with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql 
--with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config 
--with-gd 
--with-jpeg-dir 
--with-iconv-dir=/usr/local 
--with-libxml-dir=/usr 
--with-zlib 
--with-png-dir 
--with-curl 
--with-ldap 
--with-xmlrpc 
--with-openssl 
--with-mhash 
--with-mcrypt 
--with-freetype-dir 
--with-ldap-sasl 
--with-curlwrappers 
--enable-xml 
--enable-shared 
--enable-discard-path 
--enable-safe-mode 
--enable-bcmath 
--enable-shmop 
--enable-sysvsem 
--enable-inline-optimization 
--enable-mbregex 
--enable-fastcgi 
--enable-fpm 
--enable-force-cgi-redirect 
--enable-mbstring=all 
--enable-gd-native-ttf 
--enable-pcntl 
--enable-sockets 
--enable-zip 
--enable-soap

make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'
make install && cd ..

五、安装PHP扩展模块

tar zxvf memcache-2.2.6.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.6/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install && cd ..

tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure 
--with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config 
--with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql
make && make install && cd ..

tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.6.1.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.6.1/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared 
--with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install && cd ..

 tar zxvf ImageMagick-6.7.0-8.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.7.0-8/
./configure && make && make install && cd ..

tar zxvf imagick-3.0.0.tgz
cd imagick-3.0.0/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make && make install && cd ..

修改php.ini文件

vim /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini

查找:

extension_dir = "./"

修改为:

extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"

并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:

extension = "memcache.so"
extension = "pdo_mysql.so"
extension = "imagick.so"

再查找:

output_buffering = Off

修改为:

output_buffering = On

创建缓存目录,配置eAccelerator加速PHP:

mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache

将以下参数添加到php.ini文件末尾

zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"

修改php-fpm.conf配置文件

vim /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf

如果安装 Nginx + PHP 用于程序调试,请将以下的

<value name="display_errors">0</value>

改为

<value name="display_errors">1</value>

以便显示PHP错误信息,否则,Nginx 会报状态为500的空白错误页

启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.1的9000端口,进程数为128(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为:www
 ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start         //在www用户创建之后在开启。

注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm 还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload。

六、编译安装nginx

创建www用户和组,以及网站目录,日志目录

groupadd www
useradd -g www -s /sbin/nologin www
mkdir -p /data/wsdata/wwwroot
mkdir -p /data/wsdata/wwwroot/error
echo "404" > /data/wsdata/wwwroot/error/404.html
echo "server is too busy" > /data/wsdata/wwwroot/error/50x.html
chmod +w /data/wsdata/wwwroot
mkdir -p /data/wslogs/wwwroot
chmod 777 /data/wslogs/wwwroot
chown -R www:www /data/wsdata/wwwroot

tar zxvf pcre-8.12.tar.gz && cd pcre-8.12/
./configure && make && make install && cd ..

tar zxvf nginx-1.0.2.tar.gz && cd nginx-1.0.2/
./configure 
--user=www 
--group=www 
--prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx 
--with-http_stub_status_module 
--with-http_ssl_module 
--with-http_flv_module 
--with-cc-opt='-O3' 
--with-cpu-opt=opteron 
--with-http_gzip_static_module
make && make install && cd ..

创建或修改nginx配置文件

cat nginx.conf

#user options
user www www;
#CPU Core options
worker_processes 4;
#nginx Process options
pid /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;
# [ debug | info | notice | warn | error | crit ]
error_log /wslogs/nginx_error.log crit;
#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 51200;

events {
 use epoll;
 #maxclient = worker_processes * worker_connections / cpu_number
 worker_connections 51200;
}

http {
 include mime.types;
 default_type application/octet-stream;
 #charset gb2312;

 #General options
 server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
 client_header_buffer_size 32k;
 large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;

 ignore_invalid_headers on;
 recursive_error_pages on;
 server_name_in_redirect off;
     
 sendfile on;

 #timeouts
 keepalive_timeout 60;

 #TCP options
 tcp_nopush on;
 tcp_nodelay on;

 #fastcgi options
 fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
 fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
 fastcgi_read_timeout 300;

 fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
 fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
 fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
 fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;
 fastcgi_intercept_errors on;

 #size limits
 client_max_body_size 300m;
 client_body_buffer_size 256k;

 #gzip  compression
 gzip on;
 gzip_min_length 1k;
 gzip_buffers 4 16k;
 gzip_http_version 1.1;
 gzip_comp_level 2;
 gzip_types text/plain text/css application/x-javascript application/xml;
 gzip_vary on;

 #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

#virtual hosts options
include vhosts.conf;
} 

cat vhosts.conf

server {
 listen 80;
 server_name www.linuxde.net linuxde.net;
 access_log /data/wslogs/linuxde_www_access.log combined;
 index index.html index.htm index.php;
 root /data/wsdata/wwwroot/linuxde/www;
 #error_page 404 = ./error/404.html;
 #error_page 500 502 503 504 = ./error/50x.html;
#linuxde.net 重定向到 www.linuxde.net
 if ($host !~ "^www.linuxde.net$") {
  rewrite ^(.*) http://www.linuxde.net$1 permanent;
 }
 location ~ .*.(php|php5)?$ {
  #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
  fastcgi_pass   127.0.0.1:9000;
  fastcgi_index   index.php;
  include enable_fcgi.conf;
 }
 location ~ .*.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$ {
  access_log      off;
  expires 30d;
 }
 location ~ .*.(js|css)$ {
  access_log      off;
  expires 1d;
 }
#wordpress伪静态
 location / {
  if (-f $request_filename/index.html){
   rewrite (.*) $1/index.html break;
  }
  if (-f $request_filename/index.php){
   rewrite (.*) $1/index.php;
  }
  if (!-f $request_filename){
   rewrite (.*) /index.php;
  }
 }
}

cat enable_fcgi.conf

#PHP PATH_INFO bugs
if ($request_filename ~* (.*).php) {
 set $php_url $1;
}
if (!-e $php_url.php) {
 return 403;
}
 
fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE   nginx;
 
fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING   $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD   $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE   $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH   $content_length;
 
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME   $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME   $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI   $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI   $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT   $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL   $server_protocol;
 
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR   $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT   $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR   $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT   $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME   $server_name;
 
#for test
fastcgi_param HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING gzip,deflate;
 
# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;

启动nginx服务

/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t             //检测配置文件是否正确
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx                //启动nginx

延伸阅读

评论

  1. nginx下的伪静态 规则代码改写这个方面有没有文字解说?这方面在有些linux下的PHP主机英文伪静态规则不一样,伪静态起来都很麻烦,例如一些贴吧程序,像我的久离吧http://www.9li8.com,就安装了好久,主要是因为伪静态规则的事情。

    • nginx的伪静态规则一般是网站程序开发商提供的,只有他们自己开发的网站,才知道伪静态规则怎么写,你的www.9li8.com是用wordpress,伪静态规则是和我一样的!