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Linux查看BIOS信息:dmidecode命令以及SMBIOS、DMI等

Linux系统底层的测试,有时候需要关注BIOS的信息(包括基本信息、检测到的CPU和内存等)。除了在开机启动时进入到BIOS之外,还可以在Linux系统中直接查看BIOS的信息,一般可以使用dmidecode命令(还有biosdecode命令可参考);另外,在Windows中可以使用“DMIScope”软件(收费软件,笔者未使用过)来查看和修改BIOS。

SMBIOS (System Management BIOS)是主板或系统制造者以标准格式显示产品管理信息所需遵循的统一规范。
DMI (Desktop Management Interface, DMI)就是帮助收集电脑系统信息的管理系统,DMI信息的收集必须在严格遵照SMBIOS规范的前提下进行。
SMBIOS和DMI是由行业指导机构Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF)起草的开放性的技术标准;不过DMTF宣布DMI的生命期在2005年结束了。

使用dmidecode命令时,如果不加任何参数,则打印出所有类型的信息;而加上“-t type_num”或者“-t keywords”可以查看某个类型信息。

dmidecode
dmidecode -t 1
dmidecode -t system

SMBIOS specification 2.7.1 中定义了如下的结构类型:

type Description
0 BIOS Information
1 System Information
2 Baseboard (or Module) Information
3 System Enclosure or Chassis
4 Processor Information
5 Memory Controller Information (Obsolete)
6 Memory Module Information (Obsolete)
7 Cache Information
8 Port Connector Information
9 System Slots
10 On Board Devices Information
11 OEM Strings
12 System Configuration Options
13 BIOS Language Information
14 Group Associations
15 System Event Log
16 Physical Memory Array
17 Memory Device
18 32-Bit Memory Error Information
19 Memory Array Mapped Address
20 Memory Device Mapped Address
21 Built-in Pointing Device
22 Portable Battery
23 System Reset
24 Hardware Security
25 System Power Controls
26 Voltage Probe
27 Cooling Device
28 Temperature Probe
29 Electrical Current Probe
30 Out-of-Band Remote Access
31 Boot Integrity Services (BIS) Entry Point
32 System Boot Information
33 64-Bit Memory Error Information
34 Management Device
35 Management Device Component
36 Management Device Threshold Data
37 Memory Channel
38 IPMI Device Information
39 System Power Supply
40 Additional Information
41 Onboard Devices Extended Information
42 Management Controller host Interface
126 Inactive
127 End-of-Table
128-255 Available for system- and OEM- specific informatio

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